NERC’s role in Canada is similar to its role in the United States. While the process for approving NERC Reliability Standards varies in the different Canadian jurisdictions, standards—in some cases modified to reflect the jurisdictions’ reliability regimes—are mandatory and enforceable in the provinces of Ontario, New Brunswick, Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, and Nova Scotia and are in the process of being adopted in Quebec. Enforcement programs vary among the provinces, with provincial regulators having ultimate authority for monitoring and enforcing compliance in most provinces. Saskatchewan does not have an independent regulator but its utilities are subject to NERC Reliability Standards.
Authority over electricity generation and transmission in Canada rests primarily with provincial governments. Not all jurisdictions have the necessary legal structures to name an electric reliability organization (ERO). However, all have recognized NERC as an electric reliability standards-setting organization and have committed to supporting NERC in its standards-setting and oversight role as the North American ERO. NERC has memorandums of understanding with Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and the National Energy Board of Canada, who work with NERC to enhance North American bulk power system reliability. While there are currently no MOUs in effect with British Columbia and Manitoba, both provinces have adopted NERC Reliability Standards as mandatory and enforceable and work closely with the ERO.
The Federal, Provincial, and Territorial Monitoring and Enforcement Sub-group (MESG) has developed provincial summaries of each province’s electric reliability standard-making and enforcement functions, with U.S. comparators. The MESG will review the summaries annually and update them as needed.
In 2013 and 2014, Mexico enacted significant energy reforms that include restructuring of the Mexican electricity industry, increased opportunity for private investment and a competitive electricity market. With these reforms, the roles of several key players in Mexico have changed.
Comisión Reguladora de Energia (CRE) is the federal energy regulator in Mexico. On March 3, 2016, CRE commissioners approved Resolución RES/151/2016, containing the first Grid Code (Codiga de Red) under Mexico’s 2013–2014 electricity reforms. Under these reforms, CRE has many new responsibilities and authorities, including establishing regulations for electric reliability and security. The Grid Code contains the criteria for “efficiency, quality, reliability, continuity, security, and sustainability of the National Electric System” in Mexico, and the initial version incorporates ten NERC Reliability Standards.
CRE is required to update the Grid Code annually for the next five years. In June 2016, NERC and WECC conducted a workshop for Mexican subject matter experts to provide a comprehensive overview of NERC and WECC Reliability Standards in order to assist them in providing technical advice to CRE during the development of the second Grid Code.
Centro Nacional de Control de Energía (CENACE) is the independent system and market operator for all parts of the Mexican electric system.
Comisión Federal Electricidad (CFE) is the government-owned utility. CFE was previously a vertically integrated utility but under the 2013-2014 electricity reforms, CFE, has been restructured into separate distribution, transmission, and generation organizations. Under an agreement between WECC and CFE, WECC has been monitoring CFE’s compliance with certain standards in the portion of CFE’s system in Baja California Norte that is interconnected to California.